TABLE 2.

Adrenal steroid actions on neurochemical systems in hippocampus

Extracellular glutamate
    Adrenalectomy prevents stress-induced rise of extracellular glutamate (183)
    Glucortcoids increase extracellular glutamate (232, 339)
    Stress induces Glt-1, glutamate transporter (290)
NMDA receptors
    Glucocorticoids upregulate NR2A&B (NMDA) receptor subunit mRNA (372)
Calcium currents
    Glucocorticoids increase calcium conductances (157)
    Glucocorticoids downregulate calcium extrusion pump (30)
    Adrenal steroids biphasically regulate voltage-induced calcium currents (149)
5-HT system
    Adrenal steroids are required for stress-induced serotonin turnover (18, 166, 328, 348)
    Adrenal steroids biphasically regulate 5-HT1A receptors (54, 143, 228)
GABA benzodiazepine receptors
    Differential regulation of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels by ADX and corticosterone (253, 254)
Opioids
    Glucocorticoids reverse ADX decrease in dynorphin in dentate gyrus (354)
    Glucocorticoids upregulate preproenkephalin mRNA in hippocampus (7)