Physiological Reviews

Physiological and Molecular Basis of Thyroid Hormone Action

Paul M. Yen


Thyroid hormones (THs) play critical roles in the differentiation, growth, metabolism, and physiological function of virtually all tissues. TH binds to receptors that are ligand-regulatable transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Tremendous progress has been made recently in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie TH action. In this review, we present the major advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of TH action and their implications for TH action in specific tissues, resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome, and genetically engineered mouse models.


  • Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: P. M. Yen, Molecular Regulation and Neuroendocrinology Section, Clinical Endocrinology Branch, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (E-mail:pauly{at}

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