Physiological Reviews

Cellular energy utilization and molecular origin of standard metabolic rate in mammals

D. F. Rolfe, G. C. Brown


The molecular origin of standard metabolic rate and thermogenesis in mammals is examined. It is pointed out that there are important differences and distinctions between the cellular reactions that 1) couple to oxygen consumption, 2) uncouple metabolism, 3) hydrolyze ATP, 4) control metabolic rate, 5) regulate metabolic rate, 6) produce heat, and 7) dissipate free energy. The quantitative contribution of different cellular reactions to these processes is assessed in mammals. We estimate that approximately 90% of mammalian oxygen consumption in the standard state is mitochondrial, of which approximately 20% is uncoupled by the mitochondrial proton leak and 80% is coupled to ATP synthesis. The consequences of the significant contribution of proton leak to standard metabolic rate for tissue P-to-O ratio, heat production, and free energy dissipation by oxidative phosphorylation and the estimated contribution of ATP-consuming processes to tissue oxygen consumption rate are discussed. Of the 80% of oxygen consumption coupled to ATP synthesis, approximately 25-30% is used by protein synthesis, 19-28% by the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, 4-8% by the Ca2(+)-ATPase, 2-8% by the actinomyosin ATPase, 7-10% by gluconeogenesis, and 3% by ureagenesis, with mRNA synthesis and substrate cycling also making significant contributions. The main cellular reactions that uncouple standard energy metabolism are the Na+, K+, H+, and Ca2+ channels and leaks of cell membranes and protein breakdown. Cellular metabolic rate is controlled by a number of processes including metabolic demand and substrate supply. The differences in standard metabolic rate between animals of different body mass and phylogeny appear to be due to proportionate changes in the whole of energy metabolism. Heat is produced by some reactions and taken up by others but is mainly produced by the reactions of mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and proton leak on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free energy is dissipated by all cellular reactions, but the major contributions are by the ATP-utilizing reactions and the uncoupling reactions. The functions and evolutionary significance of standard metabolic rate are discussed.